Khoresh Bademjan

Persian lamb & aubergine stew

This Persian stew is probably my favourite of all the khoresh dishes. A controversial statement as most Iranians would say Ghormeh Sabzi (a stew made with lamb, kidney bean, herbs and dried limes). But my love for aubergines and tomatoes makes this my number one, although really there is not much in it between this and the other khoresh dishes we Iranians cook and eat.

Khoresh translated from Farsi means stew, but technically my version of this dish should be called a casserole as it is slow cooked to perfection in an oven, as opposed to simmered on a stove.  If you prefer, you can cook this all on the stove. Just continue to simmer on your stove top (medium / low heat) at step 6 below for over 1 hour until the meat is tender and falls off the bone when prodded.

The ingredients for this amazing khoresh are lamb (on the bone), aubergines (‘Bademjan’ in Farsi), onions and some tomatoes (either halved or on the vine) placed on top to slow cook with the rest of the stew. The flavour profile of this dish is enhanced by the use of garlic, turmeric, saffron, a bay leaf and cinnamon with some tomato purée and fresh lime juice for good measure.

Although the traditional recipe for this khoresh is with lamb, some make it with beef or chicken. You can make a vegetarian version by using tofu or lentils if you fancy. If you are looking for a vegan / vegetarian Persian khoresh then check out my recipe for Khoresh Kadoo-e-Tond here (a spicy red lentil and courgette stew). You can replace the courgettes with aubergines.

The key to this dish is frying the aubergine separately before adding it to the khoresh. It really does make a massive difference to the flavour and the consistency of the aubergine, which should be soft and not spongy. You can, of course, oven roast your aubergine if you don’t want to fry them. But the recipe below is as close to the version most Iranians make in their homes.

As long as I can remember this khoresh has featured at many of our family gatherings over the years, held during the winter months. It is deeply comforting and will warm the cockles!

It is commonly served with chelow and tahdig (rice and crispy rice formed at the bottom of the pot while cooking), and further accompanied by a salad (such as Salad Shirazi), yoghurt dip (such as Maast O’Moosir or Maast O’Khiar) and pickles (Torshi).

Khoresh Bademjan

Persian lamb & aubergine stew
Prep Time20 mins
Cook Time3 hrs 25 mins
Total Time3 hrs 45 mins
Course: Main Course
Cuisine: Persian, Iranian
Keyword: khoresh bademjoon
Servings: 4 (to 6 people)
Author: Mersedeh Prewer


  • 100 ml vegetable oil (the majority of this is used to fry the aubergines)
  • 3 medium aubergines (halved and salted to draw out water)
  • 600 g to 1kg of lamb leg on the bone (ask the butcher to cut into 3 cm cubes)
  • 1 large brown onion (finely chopped)
  • 3 cloves garlic (crushed or minced)
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 3 tbsp tomato purée
  • 600 ml chicken or vegetable stock
  • 1/4 tsp ground saffron (bloomed in 2 tbsp of water)
  • 1 cinnamon stick
  • 1 bay leaf
  • Juice of half a lime
  • Salt and Pepper (to season)
  • 500 g small to medium sized tomatoes on the vine (I use Sainsbury's Majestic tomatoes on the vine as they are the perfect size - bigger than cherry tomatoes but smaller than medium sized tomatoes)


Prepare Aubergines (this stage can be done in advance and the aubergine will keep in fridge for up to 3 days or you can freeze them, defrost and use at a later date)

  • Slice aubergines in half, salt and leave then in a colander to draw out the water (about 30 mins).
  • Pour 75 ml of the vegetable oil into a non-stick frying pan / skillet and place on high / medium heat. Pat the aubergines dry and then gently lower flesh side down into the oil and cook until golden / brown and soft on both sides. Cook in batches to avoid overcrowding the pan. Then place aubergine slices on a paper towel to absorb excess oil.

Prepare the Khoresh

  • Pre-heat oven to 140°C (fan oven) / 160°C (conventional) / gas mark 3.
  • Take a shallow casserole pan (with a lid) and place on a medium / high heat. Add 2 tbsp of vegetable oil and heat for about 1 min. Season and then seal the lamb chunks in the pan. Remove the meat from the pan and leave on a plate to rest.
  • Add 2 tbsp of oil to the casserole dish and heat for about 1 min / until the oil glistens. Add the chopped onions and cook until they turn golden / start to caramelise.
  • Add 3 crushed garlic cloves and stir into the onions. Then add 1 tsp of turmeric and stir in. Once evenly distributed and you can smell the aroma, add 3 tbsp of tomato purée and stir in.
  • Add the sealed lamb, followed by the stock, bloomed saffron, cinnamon stick and bay leaf. Add some water if you need to ensure the meat is covered by the sauce. Stir and then add lime juice and salt and pepper to taste.
  • Let the mixture simmer for about 10 mins. Then turn the stove off. Nestle the aubergine halves into the stew so that they are submerged into the liquid. Place the tomatoes on top. Put the lid on the pan and place in the oven to cook for approx 3 hrs.
  • Half way through, remove from oven and spoon the juices over the aubergine and meat and adjust meat and/or aubergines gently to ensure they are in the sauce. The oil will rise to the top of the stew gravy - feel free to spoon off any excess oil which may have formed on the top. I sometimes gently lay a kitchen paper towel on the surface to soak up any excess oil. Others just mix it back in.
  • Once cooked (lamb should be falling off the bone after the slow cook), serve with rice, salad and yoghurt.







Khoresh Kadoo-e-Tond

Spicy courgette & red lentil stew

This is my own take on a stew which is usually made with lamb or chicken. I wanted to have a meat-free dish for my family but one that still had Persian flavours. This stew felt like one that would respond well to being meat-free and my experiment turned out to be a total treat.

Khoresh Kadoo (courgette stew in Farsi) is a dish that tends to be reserved for family meals as opposed to our parties (mehmoonis). The reason, I suspect, is that Khoresh Bademjan (aubergine stew) is very similar but is considered to be the superior dish and worthy of guests – the poor humble courgette!

Well no longer sidelined, this recipe allows this stew to be centre stage as it cannot be compared to the regal aubergine stew. The main differences are, I have added chillies and substituted the meat for red lentils. The resulting dish still has the comforting savoury flavours of the traditional dish but with a glow of plant-based goodness and a burst of spice from the chillies.

In order to really enhance the flavours of this dish, I recommend frying the courgette before adding them to the stew (this can be done the day before to save time). For the health conscious, you can roast the courgette with a drizzle of oil in the oven on 180°C (fan) / 200°C (conventional) / Gas Mark 6 for about 20 minutes. Either way, the courgette can be prepared up to a few days in advance and refrigerated until you are ready to cook the stew.

This dish is best served with kateh (Persian easy cook sticky rice), chelow or, if you want to fully commit to the wholesome side of life, brown rice is also an excellent accompaniment.

Khoresh Kadoo-e-Tond

Spicy courgette and red lentil stew
Prep Time10 mins
Cook Time1 hr 30 mins
Total Time1 hr 40 mins
Course: Main Course
Cuisine: Iranian
Keyword: vegetarian, vegan, lentils, courgettes, chillies
Servings: 4
Author: Mersedeh Prewer


  • 6 tbsp vegetable oil (sounds punchy but most of it is used to fry the courgettes - see notes above re: oven roasting courgettes as an alternative)
  • 3 courgettes
  • 1 large onion (finely diced)
  • 3 cloves garlic (crushed)
  • 1 tsp dried red chilli flakes
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 1 tbsp tomato purée
  • 500 ml passata
  • 150 g red lentils
  • 500 ml water
  • 1/8 tsp saffron (bloomed in 2 tbsp of water)
  • Juice from half a lemon
  • 10 cherry tomatoes (halved)
  • Salt and pepper (to season)
  • Chopped fresh mint (to garnish)


  • Take a large frying pan and pour 4 tbsps of oil into the pan. Place on a medium to high heat.
  • Halve the courgettes and then slice them about 2cm thick.
  • Sprinkle a little salt and pepper on the slices and fry the courgettes on each side until golden, and soft.
  • Remove the courgettes and put on a paper towel to soak up the excess oil.
  • Take a large casserole dish or saucepan with a lid (about 3.5 litres capacity) and place on a medium to high heat. Add 2 tbsp of oil, add the onion and fry until golden, stirring now and again.
  • Add the garlic, turmeric and chilli and stir. Add the tomato purée and stir in. Once it glistens add the red lentils and stir until evenly distributed.
  • Add the passata, 250 ml of the water, the bloomed saffron and fresh lemon juice. Stir and season to taste.
  • Once the the stew starts to boil add the remaining 250 ml of water and stir, lower the heat to allow the stew to slowly simmer. Let it simmer for 10 minutes. Add more water if the stew looks too thick.
  • Add your courgettes and gently submerge in the stew.
  • Scatter your halved tomatoes evenly across the stew, place the lid on the pan and simmer for no less than 45 mins. Once cooking time has finished and you are ready to serve, turn off the heat and garnish with chopped fresh mint and coriander.
  • Serve with rice and / or flatbreads.


Khoresh Karafs (sabz)

Lamb, herb and celery stew

Winter is the season of Persian stews and this is a lovely introduction if you are new to Persian cuisine. Persian stews are relatively low maintenance to cook, which is a bit of a relief as the accompanying rice (chelow) requires attention and precision to create the fluffy grains and moreish Tahdig.

We have two versions of Khoresh Karafs in my family. The first one, the subject of this post and the better known version, is cooked with herbs. The second one is cooked with tomatoes and I will do a separate post on the red version in due course. In my big fat Persian family, we refer to them by their colour: Khoresh Karafs-e-Sabz (‘sabz’ means green in Farsi); and Khoresh Karafs-e-Ghermez (‘ghermez’ means red in Farsi).

The ingredients for this khoresh (stew) are simple and easy to source: onion, lamb, celery, parsley, mint, garlic, fresh lime juice, turmeric and saffron. Every household has its own variation and mine differs from others as I use more mint in my version. The resulting khoresh is lighter and fresher in flavour. The celery is also an equal star of the show and adds a delicious peppery and savoury flavour to the dish. So often celery is hidden in dishes to flavour them but in this case it is a headliner, where it deserves to be.

My family cook our stews with lamb or chicken but I have noticed our US and Canadian counterparts use beef. You can certainly use beef but make sure it is the cut of beef best for stewing i.e. braising beef such as skirt, chuck or blade. In the case of this recipe, the UK has excellent quality lamb so, unless you are not keen on it, it is the best meat to use to complement the herbs. The best cut of lamb to use for this recipe is from the leg and from a butcher. Ask for the leg to be trimmed of the outer layers of fat and to be cut into stew size pieces with the bone. I often buy a full leg of lamb chopped into chunks for stews and then I create separate portions (equivalent for a family of 4, ranging from 600 grams to 1kg depending on the bone to meat ratio) and freeze the lamb portions until I am ready to cook. The slow cooking of the khoresh results in the lamb falling off the bone and melting in your mouth and the stew will be more flavoursome due to the bone broth created.

If you are vegetarian or vegan then other vegetables of your choice which complement the herby flavours and/or meat substitutes such as jackfruit, tofu or quorn are great alternatives.

Although supermarkets have an excellent selection of herbs available, I tend to buy my big bunches of herbs from my local Asian supermarket. Usually it works out to two large bunches of parsley (approximately 250 grams) and one large bunch of mint (approximately 150 grams).

I hope this dish becomes a favourite for you as it has for my family. As with all Persian stews, the flavour continues to mature and intensify if you leave it for a day before you reheat and serve.  This is, therefore, a dish you can make on a Sunday evening and tuck into later in the week reducing the time spent in the kitchen and washing up afterwards. Serve it with chelow and either torshi or a salad with a citrus dressing.

My husband recently asked me why Iranians referred to the vegetable and/or fruit element in the names of most of our stews and not the meat. For instance this stew translated is celery stew, there is no reference to the lamb. Khoresh Bademjan, despite being made with lamb, only refers to the aubergine (bademjan). Khoresh Beh ba Aloo refers to the quince (beh) and plums (aloo) despite either being cooked with chicken or lamb. There are exceptions such as Khoresh Gheymeh (a stew made with lamb, yellow split peas and dried limes) and Khoresh Fesenjan (a stew made with chicken or duck with walnuts and pomegranate molasses) which have their own etymology but I will save that history lesson for another time!

Now I don’t know the actual answer so as my husband and I discussed the matter I concluded the position on the following assumptions:

  1. It is a given that all or most of our stews have meat in them; and
  2. It is the addition of these vegetables, herbs and/or fruits that change the flavours of the dish given that the core ingredients and spices are often the same e.g. onion, either lamb or chicken, turmeric and saffron.

The variation of these vegetables, herbs or fruits should get top billing in the name of the stews as ultimately it is these hero ingredients that change the flavour profile.

Khoresh Karafs

Lamb, herb and celery stew
Prep Time30 mins
Cook Time1 hr 30 mins
Total Time2 hrs
Course: Main Course
Cuisine: Persian, Iranian
Keyword: mint, parsley, lamb, celery
Servings: 4
Author: Mersedeh Prewer


  • 5 tbsp oil or butter or ghee
  • 250 g fresh parsley
  • 150 g fresh mint
  • 1 large head of celery (about 7 to 10 stalks cut into 2 to 3 inch chunks)
  • 1 medium onion
  • 2 cloves garlic (crushed)
  • 1 tsp turmeric
  • 0.6 to 1 kg lamb on the bone (preferably leg, portioned into chunks approx. 2 to 3 inches width)
  • 600 ml water or vegetable stock
  • 1/8 tsp ground saffron (bloomed in 2 tbsp of water)
  • Juice of 1 to 2 fresh limes
  • Salt and pepper (to taste)


  • Take the herbs and remove leaves from the stalks, discard the stalks, and place the leaves in a colander. Wash the leaves and let the water drain out in the time you are working through the next steps of the recipe.
  • Finely dice your onion.
  • Take a casserole dish / saucepan which has a lid and a minimum capacity of 3.5 litres and place it on a medium to high heat. Add 1 tbsp of the oil / butter / ghee and brown the lamb and remove from the pan.
  • Add 2 tbsp of the oil / butter / ghee and then add the diced onions. Cook the onions until they have turned golden (approx. 10 minutes).
  • Add the crushed garlic cloves and stir, being careful that the garlic does not turn brown and/or burn.
  • Add the lamb and stir.
  • Add the turmeric and stir until distributed evenly.
  • Then add the water or vegetable stock and bloomed saffron (the liquid should just cover the meat so adjust if necessary), place a lid on the pan and turn down the heat to low and let the meat simmer.
  • In the meantime, take the herbs and finely chop them making sure to mix the mint and parsley until it is evenly distributed. Feel free to use a food processor to chop the herbs but pulse the herbs until they are chopped. If you over-process the resulting herbs will taste bitter.
  • Then take a frying pan and add 1 tbsp of the oil / butter / ghee and put on a medium/low heat. Add your chopped herbs and stir until the herb mix has softened, being careful not to burn it. A few minutes will suffice. Then add the herb mix to the lamb and stir. Replace the lid.
  • Take the celery and chop into 2 inch chunks. Sauté the celery on a medium heat in the frying pan, used for the herbs with the remaining tbsp of oil / butter / ghee, for no more than a few minutes. Just enough for the celery to take on some heat from the pan but not soften. Turn the heat off under your frying pan and add the celery to the lamb and herb mixture.
  • After 5 minutes of simmering, add the fresh lime juice (start with half the lime and then add more), salt and pepper and adjust according to taste.
  • Continue simmering the stew for a minimum of an hour, stirring gently every 15 minutes and checking the softness of the meat - ideally you want the meat to be falling off the bone.
  • When ready, turn off the heat and serve with chelow and either torshi or a salad with a citrus dressing.